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Pericarditis nursing NCLEX review on the nursing management, causes, signs and symptoms (pericardial friction rub), complications (pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade), and treatments (pericardiocentesis or pericardiectomy). Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium layer of the heart. The pericardium is a double layered sac that contains the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium. The serous pericardium is made up of two layers called the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium, which is also know as the epicardium. In between the parietal and visceral layer is the pericardial space that contains serous fluid called pericardial fluid. Causes of pericarditis include illness, trauma, autoimmune or idiopathic. There are two types of pericarditis, acute and chronic. Acute lasts for less than 6 weeks. While chronic pericarditis lasts more than 6 months. Chronic pericarditis can lead to constrictive pericarditis which is thickening of the pericardium that constricts heart filling. This leads to signs and symptoms of heart failure. Treatment for this is a pericardiocentesis. Signs and symptoms of pericarditis include: pericardial friction rub, fever, chest pain, pain while lying in the supine position, and ST segment elevation on an EKG. Treatments for pericarditis include aspirin or NSAIDS or Colchicine or corticosteroids.r
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